开放获取游击队宣言

Guerilla Open Access Manifesto

Aaron Swartz? 亚伦·斯沃茨

July 2008, Eremo, Italy?

Information is power. But like all power, there are those who want to keep it for themselves. The world’s entire scientific and cultural heritage, published over centuries in books and journals, is increasingly being digitized and locked up by a handful of private corporations. Want to read the papers featuring the most famous results of the sciences? You’ll need to send enormous amounts to publishers like Reed Elsevier.

“信息就是力量。但就像所有力量一样,有些人只想将其占为己有。世界上所有的科学和学问遗产,已在书籍和期刊上发布了数个世纪,正渐渐地被少数私有企业数字化并上锁。想要阅读那些有着最著名研究成果的论文?你必须支付给里德·爱思唯尔(Reed Elsevier)那样的出版商大把钞票。

There are those struggling to change this. The Open Access Movement has fought valiantly to ensure that scientists do not sign their copyrights away but instead ensure their work is published on the Internet, under terms that allow anyone to access it. But even under the best scenarios, their work will only apply to things published in the future. Everything up until now will have been lost.

有些人正在努力改变这种局面。开放获取运动进行了英勇的斗争,以确保科学家们不会放弃他们的版权,而是确保他们的作品在互联网上发表,并允许任何人访问。但即使在最好的情况下,他们的工作也只适用于未来出版的东西。到现在为止的一切都将失去。

That is too high a price to pay. Forcing academics to pay money to read the work of their colleagues? Scanning entire libraries but only allowing the folks at 谷歌 to read them? Providing scientific articles to those at elite universities in the First World, but not to children in the Global South? It’s outrageous and unacceptable.

“为此付出的代价实在太大。强制学者付钱以阅读同行的成果?扫描整个图书馆却只允许谷歌的人阅读它们?提供学术论文给第一世界的精英大学,却不给身在南半球的儿童?这些行为蛮横而令人无法接受。

“I agree,” many say, “but what can we do? The companies hold the copyrights, they make enormous amounts of money by charging for access, and it’s perfectly legal — there’s nothing we can do to stop them.” But there is something we can, something that’s already being done: we can fight back.

“‘我同意,’很多人说,‘但大家能做些什么呢?那些企业握有版权,他们靠限制访问赚取大把钞票,而且这完全是合法的——大家无力阻止他们。’但有些事大家能做,而且已经在做:反击。

Those with access to these resources — students, librarians, scientists — you have been given a privilege. You get to feed at this banquet of knowledge while the rest of the world is locked out. But you need not — indeed, morally, you cannot — keep this privilege for yourselves. You have a duty to share it with the world. And you have: trading passwords with colleagues, filling download requests for friends.

“那些能够访问这些资源的人——学生、图书管理员、科学家——你们被赋予了特权。你们能享受到这场常识的盛宴,而其他人却被排除在外。但是你们不必——事实上,从道义层面来说,你们不能——仅为自己保留这份特权。你们有义务与全世界分享它,而且你们已经在做了:与同行交换密码,回应朋友的下载请求。

Meanwhile, those who have been locked out are not standing idly by. You have been sneaking through holes and climbing over fences, liberating the information locked up by the publishers and sharing them with your friends.

“同时,那些被拒之门外的人们,并没有守株待兔。你们悄悄地穿过洞穴,翻过围墙,解放那些被出版商封锁的信息,分享给你们的朋友。

But all of this action goes on in the dark, hidden underground. It’s called stealing or piracy, as if sharing a wealth of knowledge were the moral equivalent of plundering a ship and murdering its crew. But sharing isn’t immoral — it’s a moral imperative. Only those blinded by greed would refuse to let a friend make a copy.

“但所有这些行动都是在黑暗中进行,隐藏于地下。它们被称为‘偷窃’或‘盗版’,仿佛分享大量常识等同于抢劫船只并谋杀船员。但分享并非不道德,而是一种道德使命。只有利欲熏心者才会拒绝让朋友复制。

Large corporations, of course, are blinded by greed. The laws under which they operate require it — their shareholders would revolt at anything less. And the politicians they have bought off back them, passing laws giving them the exclusive power to decide who can make copies.

“大企业自然利欲熏心。它们赖以生存的法律要求它们如此——稍微赚得少点,投资人就会暴动。它们花钱收买政治家的支撑,通过法律赋予它们特权,决定谁才可以复制。

There is no justice in following unjust laws. It’s time to come into the light and, in the grand tradition of civil disobedience, declare our opposition to this private theft of public culture.

“遵从不公正的法律不会带来公正。步入光明的时候到了,在公民不服从的伟大传统下,宣告大家对这种盗窃公共学问的行为的反抗。

We need to take information, wherever it is stored, make our copies and share them with the world. We need to take stuff that's out of copyright and add it to the archive. We need to buy secret databases and put them on the Web. We need to download scientific journals and upload them to file sharing networks. We need to fight for Guerilla Open Access.

“大家要夺回信息,无论它们被存在何处,复制它们并与全世界共享。大家要取得版权到期的作品并将它们归档。大家要买下秘密数据库并将它们放在网上。大家要下载科学期刊并将它们上传至文件共享网络。大家要为‘游击队开放访问’而战。

With enough of us, around the world, we’ll not just send a strong message opposing the privatization of knowledge — we’ll make it a thing of the past. Will you join us?

“只要全世界拥有足够多的成员,大家就不仅仅是在传达一个反对常识私有化的强有力的信号,大家还将令这一切成为过去。你愿意加入大家吗?

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